Aims and Methods of Teaching Geography Mr. Lhakpa Dhondup, PGT Geography, TCV school Gopalpur.
We know about the importance of Geography, so we must have proper ideas about aims and objectives of its teaching. Without the knowledge of the aims and objectives of the teaching of Geography; it is not possible for the teacher to teach the subject properly. So here are some of the objectives and methods of teaching geography.
To enable the learners to study earth as the home of man i.e. to understand biotic and abiotic phenomenon in the geographical realms within the framework of man environment relationship. To develop an urge and henceforth a vision to peep into the complexity of natural and self created dynamic environment. Above all geography helps in reinforcing scientific and rational attitudes towards the holistic concept of our lovely mother planet.
Methods of teaching geography
With the development of subject matter and the knowledge of geography, various methods have evolved and are being employed to impart its knowledge to the students. Teacher has to employ these methods keeping in view the psychological requirements of the students. Students of different stages have different psychological requirements and so the method of teaching has to be modified accordingly. Following are the most common methods of the teaching of geography at school level.
1. Socratic/ Question answer method
In this method of teaching, the teacher tries to systematize the pervious knowledge of the students. The pervious knowledge of students is disorganized and scattered. So by removing i.e. doubts of the students, an attempt is made to bring them to the proper track. I think this method is very useful especially for recapitulation of the previous lesson. This method helps us to awaken the curiosity of the students and it also helps us to create interest of the students in the subject matter of the lesson. In other words, on the basis of the previous knowledge of the students, the new subject matter has to be taught.
2. Inductive method
Here an attempt is made to proceed from particular to general. This method is quite psychological and logical. In order to use this method successfully and scientifically, the teacher should not give many examples. Here the students should be encouraged so that their power of research and discovery may develop and they may be encouraged to reach the desired goal. This method is very useful for the concept of cause and effect relationship. For example: air pressure and heat.
3. Deductive method
I think this method is not that much useful for the students of the lower classes. In fact, it is useful for higher classes.
4. Lecture method
This method is useful for the students of the higher classes. While delivering a lecture, the teacher should determine the mental age and psychological requirements of the students. He should use such language which is intelligible to the students. Teacher should have different types of tones of facilitate learning in the class.
5. Textbook method
Here an attempt is made to teach geography with the help of the textbooks. The teacher takes to the reading of the textbook or asks the students to read the textbook. Teacher should explain the difficult and complicated questions. But this method is not psychological and scientific. Here it creates an atmosphere of boredom in the class and makes the students lose interest in the subject matter. Later students become inactive and lethargic.
6. Descriptive method
This method is very suitable for teaching geography such as description of physical feature, soil, rivers, agriculture. Here a clear picture has to be drawn on minds of the students by the teacher. The description has to be very attractive and lively. Only then the complete picture shall be imprinted. Here teacher should use various teaching aids such as models, charts etc. While using this methods, the teacher should not try to go very much in detail. An attempt should be made to encourage the students to take part in this description. They should also be given an opportunity to give vent to their own ideas.
7. Observation method
Here students get an opportunity to observe and see things for themselves. Here we value primary and practical methods of students. The knowledge acquired through this method is complete, clear and perfect. Teacher should have properly observed and seen the things that expects the students to observe. Unless the teacher has a thorough knowledge of it, it shall not be possible for him to impart scientific knowledge.
8. Meditation method
This method is very effective for recapitulation of previous knowledge. Here first let the students settle down and then let them meditate for one or two minutes and in between that teacher should try to narrate all the subject matter as back ground music. It should be short and precise.