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How to write an effective lesson plan

How to write an effective lesson plan Mr. Lodoe Tsering, PGT Geography, TCV Gopalpur.

A lesson is a written description to teach academic content. A lesson plan helps teachers organize their objectives and methodologies. A lesson plan determines the purpose, aim and rational of your class time activity. It also provides focus for the lesson you are presenting. A lesson plan is a fairly detailed plan of instruction. It helps you think through the best way to present the information to the students. You will need to develop clear and specific objectives. The following important components must be included in all lesson plans:



(1) It is important to know the subject matter you will be teaching.

(2) List the important facts, key concepts, skills or vocabulary terms that you intend to cover.

(3) Indicate what you intend to teach.

(4) Identify tile aims or outcomes you want the students to achieve.

(5) Have clear idea of what you want the students to learn.

(6) The objectives must contain a behavior, the content, the condition and the criterion, so that you can write, in detail, what is learned and how well the students learn it.

(7) The objective of lesson is that the students demonstrate a specific skill. e.g., how to add 2+2.

(8) Make sure you will be able to tell if the objective was met.

(9) Must include broad and narrow objectives. The broad objective is the overall goal of the lesson plan. The narrow or specific objective would be what it teaches the students to accomplish, e.g., teach the students to add. Indicate what is to be learned.

(10) Objectives should also be directly measureable. Gather evidence that the students did the task, e.g., quizzes or assignments.

(11) Write objectives that describes learning outcomes.

(12) List all the equipment to be used by the student and the teacher.

(13) Describe how the equipment will be used.

Lesson setup

(1) Decide on the signal for attention, e.g, Good morning. Let's get started or eyes on me...

(2) Explain the rules and procedures, e.g, raising hands or not talking at once.

(3) The statement of behavior expectations should be written in positive language.

(4) Language must be aged appropriate, specific and clear.

(5) Explain your expectations for learning at each transition of the lesson, rather than stating them all at the beginning.

(6) It shows the students how this lesson connects with your yesterday's lesson.


Lesson opening

(1) Review what has already been learned.

(2) State the objective of the lesson.

(3) Motivate and get students focused on the lesson.
Lesson body

(4) Provide a detailed, step by step description of everything you will do.

(5) Include a description of how you will introduce the lesson.

(6) Tell die actual technique you will use.

(7) Plan frequent and varied opportunities for the students to be involved.

(8) Include specific things that the students will do during the lesson.

(9) Check for student understanding.

(10) Use multiple methods to check for students understanding.

(11) Describe how this material can be presented to ensure each student will have a good learning experience.


Extended practice

(1) Provide practice opportunities prior to evaluation.

(2) Monitor this practice session and give the students feedback.

(3) Describe how to provide opportunities to practice during and following the lesson.

(4) Extended practice often takes two forms:

   (A) Homework.

   (B) Follow up practice at school.

      (a) Provide great deal of additional practice in real world applications.

      (b) Make sure the students can use the lesson learned in various settings.


Lesson closing

(1) Review the key points of the lesson.

(2) Give students opportunities to draw conclusions from the lesson.

(3) Describe when the students can use this new information.

(4) Preview future lessons. Have students describe their problem solving process.

(5) It should be a meaningful end to the lesson.

(6) This is a time for students to show their work.

(7) The closing can create a smooth transition from one lesson to the next lesson.


Assessment/ Evaluations

(1) You must evaluate the objectives that were identified.

(2) Provide students with the opportunity to practice the activity you will be assessing them on.

(3) Describe the ways you will provide opportunities for the students to practice.

(4) Clear descriptions of the method that will help you accurately determine whether or not the students have mastered the lesson objective.


Lesson plan format

Topic(s): Why is Geography important to me?

Date: August 1, 2008

Grade level: 7,8,9,10,11,12,

Subject(s): Social studies/ Geography

Duration: 50 minutes

Description: This lesson gives students a brief overview of the importance of geography. Students will learn how geography is used in the real world. Each student will write an essay describing four occupations that require geographical knowledge.



1. Students will gain an understanding/ appreciation of geography.

2. Students will get a sense of how geography relates to their everyday lives.


1. Students will be able to brainstorm a list of common jobs (to be used in class discussion).

2. After learning how geography is useful, students will be able to name some occupations where geographical knowledge is needed.

3. Students will be able to write an essay describing four occupations, which require knowledge of geography.


(1) Textbooks.

(2) Paper and pens/ pencils

(3) Overhead Projector (if available).

(4) Geography hand outs ( can also be used for transparencies)


Attention getter (5 minutes): Start off the lesson by passing out a piece of paper with the question, "Why is geography important to me?" Give students about two minutes to write down their answers. Then ask the students to share their responses. On the overhead, display a transparency which gives the definition of geography( or you can put the definition on the chalkboard if an overhead projector is not available).

Brainstorm ( 5 minutes):
Have students brainstorm a list of common jobs? Challenge the class to come up with as many jobs as they can in three minutes. Then list some of the students idea on the overhead.

Short discussion (5 minutes):
Ask the class, do you think knowledge of geography is needed for any of these jobs? Ask the students to recall the five themes of geography ( location, place, human environment interactions, movement and regions). On the overhead, write down the occupations for which students feel geographical knowledge is necessary. Share other examples of occupations that students may not have mentioned.


Group work (10 minutes):
Divide the students into group of two. Have each pair come up with an additional four occupations that would require some type of geographical knowledge. Have each group write their choices on the board.


Writing exercises (remainder of class):
Each student should pick at least four occupations from the list on the board. each students will write an essay that describes what each job entails and how geography relates to each job. The essays will be collected at the end of the class. If more time is needed, then students can hand in the essays at the beginning of the next day's class.

In their essays, students should demonstrate an understanding of how geographical knowledge is necessary for the selected occupations.



Ways to integrate technology: The opening activity could be done with the use of an LCD panel connected to the teacher's computer in the front of the room. The teacher could display the opening question on the screen. As the answers are given, the teacher could type the responses onto the page and later print out a composite list for the class. For a classroom with 45 computers, students could take turns searching the internet for occupations that involve the use of geography. If a computer lab is available, then students could use a word processing program to type their essays.